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Climate and environmental issues

Climate quiz
Environment quiz

Thanks to the scientific work that has been carried out in the last few decades, we are now able to better understand the causes of climate change and other environmental imbalances. We also have a better understanding of how to act to limit these phenomena. This section contains a few key figures, as well as some useful links, which will provide answers to any preliminary questions you may have.

Key figures

+ 1.5 to 5°C

Global temperatures have increased by 1°C on average since the beginning of the industrial era, and the IPCC estimates that they will increase by a further 1.5 to 5°C by the end of the century.
It is imperative that we limit this increase to 2°C.


Should current trends persist, around 90% of the Earth’s coral reefs may have disappeared by 2050. This would impact the entirety of the world’s marine ecosystem.


If global warming is to remain under the 1.5°C threshold, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions must be reduced to achieve a balance between emissions and absorption by 2050. This balance is also known as carbon neutrality.


Vertebrate animal populations have already fallen by 68% between 1970 and 2016.
If we continue to emit greenhouse gases at our current rate, this downwards trend may worsen, leading to the extinction of many species by 2050.

1.4 billion

According to the IPCC, should greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase at the current rate, sea levels could rise by 1.1 meters (3.5ft) by 2100, potentially putting over 1.4 billion people at risk.


The 29th of July 2021 was called “Earth Overshoot Day”. In 210 days, we had used the total amount of resources that the planet can regenerate in a year.


Although greenhouse gas emissions in Europe decreased by 25% between 1990 and 2017, global emissions have increased by 64% in the same period and are still on the rise.


According to the IPCC, agricultural production will fall by 2% per decade in the coming years, while the world’s population continues to increase by 10% every decade.

2 tCO2

To achieve carbon neutrality in France by 2050, we would need to reduce our emissions from 10 metric tons of CO2 (tCO2) per capita /year to 2 tCO2 per capita/year.
For scale, one return flight from Paris to New York produces around 1 tCO2 per passenger...

Useful links

The following links will take you to articles, videos, dossiers, websites and online courses to help you get started and better understand the current climate crisis. You can then explore certain topics in more depth by accessing our “Coming to grips with the issues” section.

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